all units lifetime avg unless denoted [nameplate]
all watts electric unless denoted [th]
t is metric tonne

material flows

coal (fuel only): 2100 t/GWh (3/4 CO2, 1/4 coal & ash)
fission (AP1000, total ex. ore & overburden): 0.3 t/GWh (mostly concrete)
solar PV (Sanyo HIT Power 215N, panel only): 2.2 t/GWh (@ 7.2e9 J/m2yr)
solar PV (First Solar FS-387, panel only): 3.2 t/GWh (@ 7.2e9 J/m2yr)
tidal (Atlantis AK1000): 2.5 t/GWh (@ 100% c.f. x 60 yr; Severn barrage: 22% c.f.)
wind (Areva M5000-135, top mass only): 1.1 t/GWh (mostly steel)
wind (Vestas, complete V112 plant): 7.5 t/GWh (1/4 metal, 3/4 concrete)

land requirements

fission (Diablo Canyon NPP): 1.0 km2/GW
fission (McDonald et al 2009): 21 km2/GW
fission (Fukushima excl. zone): 630 km2/GW (8.78e5 GWh; 20 km radius for 100 yr)
oil sands (Syncrude leases): 110 km2/GW[th] (8.15e6 GWh[th]; 1020 km2 for 100 yr)
solar CSP trough (Andasol 1 & 2): 111 km2/GW
solar CSP tower (Ivanpah): 114 km^2/GW (projected)
solar PV (Agua Caliente Phase 1): 136 km2/GW
solar updraft (Environmission tower skirt): 200 km2/GW[nameplate]
tidal (Wavehub, all 4 plots): 400 km2/GW[nameplate]
wind (Dabiri 2011): 400 km2/GW
wind (McDonald et al 2009): 630 km2/GW
wind (Denholm et al 2009, direct impact area): 30 km2/GW
wind (Denholm et al 2009, total area): 1040 km2/GW

EROIs

fission (gen II LWRs, WNA 2012): 58
fission (gen III LWRs, Weissbach et al 2013): 105
oil sands (Syncrude 2011): 4.4
solar PV (CdTe, Fthenakis et al 2009): 12
wind (Vestas 2011): 30

misc. energy prices (2013 midyear)

wheat flour $95/GJ
PV panel (Sanyo 215N) $33/GJe
gasoline (U.S. avg) $27/GJ
crude oil (WTI spot) $17/GJ
natural gas (PG&E) $11/GJ
uranium (in an EPR) $0.41/GJe

energy intensity of common materials

MJ/kg g/cm3 GJ/m3 principal inputs
Aluminum 220 2.7 590 bauxite
Copper 70 8.9 630 chalcopyrite
Steel 35 7.8 270 iron ore
Plastic (LDPE) 80 0.92 74 petroleum
Glass 16 2.5 40 sand
Asphalt concrete 2.4 2.3 5.5 gravel, bitumen
Concrete 1.4 2.3 3.2 rock, sand, Portland cement

details avail. on request * Copyright 2013 Carl Lumma

changed July 9, 2015